Abstract




 
   

IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 31, No. 1 (January 2018) 46-53    Article in Press

PDF URL: http://www.ije.ir/Vol31/No1/A/7.pdf  
downloaded Downloaded: 0   viewed Viewed: 86

  FLEXURAL AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL BASED GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED FIBRE METAL LAMINATE UNDER HYGROTHERMAL CONDITIONING
 
S. Singh and S. Angra
 
( Received: October 05, 2017 – Accepted: November 30, 2017 )
 
 

Abstract    Fibre metal laminates (FMLs) have appeared as the most suitable materials for shipbuilding, aeronautical and aerospace applications, due to their superior mechanical properties over traditional materials. In this paper, the research was focused on the determination of degradation in flexural and impact properties of glass fibre/epoxy composite (GF/E composite), and stainless steel glass fibre/epoxy fibre metal laminate (SS FML) due to hygrothermal conditioning for marine applications. Hand lay-up process was used for specimen preparation according to ASTM standards. Distilled and sea water used for hygrothermal conditioning at 40°C and 70°C for three months. The three point bend test and izod impact test performed on universal testing machine and izod impact tester respectively. The decrease in flexural strength and impact energy of GF/E composite was high as compared to SS FML, due to the hindrance of the outer metallic layers of stainless steel to moisture ingestion. It observed that SS FML and GF/E specimens showed less water absorption in seawater as compared to distilled water at both temperatures. It is due to high salt content in seawater, which reduces the moisture diffusion process into the composite matrix.

 

Keywords    Fibre metal laminate, Strength degradation, Mechanical properties, Hygrothermal conditioning, Moisture diffusion, Delamination

 

چکیده    ورقه های فلزی فلزی (FMLs) به عنوان مواد مناسب برای سازه های کشتی سازی، هواپیما و هوا فضا به علت خواص مکانیکی عالی آنها نسبت به مواد سنتی به عنوان مناسب ترین مواد برای ظاهر شدن به نظر می رسد. در اين مقاله، تحقيق با هدف تعيين ضرايب خواص خمشي و ضربه اي کامپوزيت الايزاي فشرده / اپوکسی (کامپوزيت GF / E) و ورقه های فلزی ساخته شده از فيبر شیشه اي / الیاف فولاد ضد زنگ (SS FML) به علت ته نشيني هيروترمال برنامه های کاربردی دریایی فرایند دست کردن برای تهیه نمونه بر اساس استاندارد ASTM استفاده شده است. آب مقطر و آب دریا برای تهویه مطبوع در دمای 40 درجه سانتیگراد و 70 درجه سانتیگراد برای مدت سه ماه استفاده می شود. آزمون خمش سه نقطه و آزمون ضربه ایزودر به ترتیب بر روی دستگاه تست جهانی و آزمون تست ضربه استفاده شده است. کاهش نیروی خمشی و انرژی ضربه کامپوزیت GF / E نسبت به SS FML بالا بود به دلیل مانع از لایه های بیرونی فلزی از فولاد ضد زنگ به رطوبت. این مشاهده شد که نمونه های SS FML و GF / E در جذب آب کمتر در آب دریا نسبت به آب مقطر در هر دو درجه حرارت نشان داد. این به دلیل محتوای نمک زیاد در آب دریا است که روند انتشار رطوبت را در ماتریس کامپوزیت کاهش می دهد

References    1.   Kulkarni, R. R., Chawla, K. K., Vaidya, U. K., Koopman, M. C., & Eberhardt, A. W., "Characterization of long fiber thermoplastic/metal laminates", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 43, (2008), 4391–4398.    2. Rajabi, A., Kadkhodayan, M., “Investigation into the Deep Drawing of Fiber-metal Laminates based on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene”, International Journal of Engineering (IJE), TRANSACTIONS C: Aspects, vol. 27, (2014), 349–358.   3.   Sinmazçelik, T., Avcu, E., Özgür, M., & Çoban, O., "A review : Fibre metal laminates , background , bonding types and applied test methods", Materials and Design, vol. 32, (2011), 3671–3685.   4.   Sherman, D., & Leckie, F. A., "Alumina carbon / epoxy laminates under cyclic loading", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 32, (1997), 6263–6268.   5.   Sarlin, E., Hoikkanen, M., Frisk, L., Vuorinen, J., Vippola, M., & Lepistö, T., "Ageing of corrosion resistant steel / rubber / composite hybrid structures", International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 49, (2014), 26–32.   6.   Khalili, S. M. R., Mittal, R. K., & Kalibar, S. G., "A study of the mechanical properties of steel/aluminium/GRP laminates", Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 412, (2005), 137–140.   7. Jayabal, S., Natarajan, U., & Murugan, M., "Mechanical property evaluation of woven coir and woven coir-glass fiber-reinforced polyester composites", Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 45, (2011), 2279–2285.   8.   Akil, H. M., Cheng, L. W., Mohd Ishak, Z. A., Abu Bakar, A., & Abd Rahman, M. A., "Water absorption study on pultruded jute fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites", Composites Science and Technology, vol. 69, (2009), 1942–1948.   9.   Canche-Escamilla, G., Rodriguez-Laviada, J., Cauich-Cupul, J. I., Mendizabal, E., Puig, J. E., & Herrera-Franco, P. J., "Flexural, impact and compressive properties of a rigid-thermoplastic matrix/cellulose fiber reinforced composites", Composites - Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 33, (2002), 539–549.   10. Woldesenbet, E., Gupta, N., & Vinson, J. R., "Determination of moisture effects on impact properties of composite materials", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 37, (2002), 2693–2698.   11. Häberle, J. G., & Matthews, F. L., "An improved technique for compression testing of unidirectional fibre-reinforced plastics; development and results", Composites, vol. 25, (1994), 358–371.    12. Soutis, C., "Compression testing of pultruded carbon fibre-epoxy cylindrical rods", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 35, (2000), 3441–3446.   13. Oguni, K., & Ravichandran, G., "Dynamic compressive behavior of unidirectional E-glass/vinylester composites", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 36, (2001), 831–838.   14. Kanerva, M., Sarlin, E., & Saarela, O., "Variation in mode II dominated interface fracture of stainless steel-epoxy bonds . Part 1 : Mechanical testing", Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 99, (2013), 147–158.    15. Sarlin, E., Heinonen, E., Vuorinen, J., Vippola, M., & Lepistö, T., "Adhesion properties of novel corrosion resistant hybrid structures", International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 49, (2014), 51–57.   16. Pärnänen, T., Kanerva, M., Sarlin, E., & Saarela, O., "Debonding and impact damage in stainless steel fibre metal laminates prior to metal fracture", Composite structures, vol. 119, (2015), 777–786.   17. Lee, B. E., Park, E. T., Kim, J., Kang, B. S., & Song, W. J., "Analytical evaluation on uniaxial tensile deformation behavior of fiber metal laminate based on SRPP and its experimental confirmation", Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 67, (2014), 154–159.    18. Kathiresan, M., Manisekar, K., & Manikandan, V., "Performance analysis of fibre metal laminated thin conical frusta under axial compression", Composite Structures, vol. 94, (2012), 3510–3519.   19. Ávila, A. F., Neto, A. S., & Nascimento Junior, H., "Hybrid nanocomposites for mid-range ballistic protection", International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 38, (2011), 669–675.   20. Arumuga, V., Manikandan, V., & Uthayakumar, M., "Effect of Redmud Particulates on Mechanical Properties of BFRP Composites", International Journal of Engineering (IJE), TRANSACTIONS B: Applications, vol. 27, (2014), 1741–1750.   21. Naceri, A., "Moisture diffusion properties of fabric composite (glass fiber / epoxy resin)", International Journal of Engineering (IJE), TRANSACTIONS B: Applications, vol. 22, (2009), 205–210.    22. Botelho, E. C., Pardini, L. C., & Rezende, M. C., "Hygrothermal effects on damping behavior of metal/glass fiber/epoxy hybrid composites", Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 399, (2005), 190–198.   23. Botelho, E. C., Almeida, R. S., Pardini, L. C., & Rezende, M. C., "Elastic properties of hygrothermally conditioned glare laminate", International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 45, (2007), 163–172.   24. Ning, H., Iijima, T., Hu, N., Liu, Y., Wu, L., Liu, F., & Arai, M., "Investigation on mode-II interface fracture toughness of CFRP/Al laminates toughened by VGCF interleaves", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 50, (2015), 1915–1923. 


Download PDF 



International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir