IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 31, No. 1 (January 2018) 90-100    Article in Press

PDF URL: http://www.ije.ir/Vol31/No1/A/12.pdf  
downloaded Downloaded: 0   viewed Viewed: 70

Mohammad E. Kazemain, S. Ebrahimi-Nejad R. and M. Jaafarian
( Received: June 07, 2017 – Accepted: November 30, 2017 )

Abstract    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a popular desalination process, due to its efficient design, ease of operation, economic competitiveness, and environmental friendliness. However, to control the quality of product water and reduce operational costs and environmental impacts by increasing the system’s energy efficiency, it is necessary to identify the influence of process parameters on energy consumption and permeate water quality. This paper introduces a case study focused on the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) method in an industrial-scale RO desalination plant. In this study, energy consumption and permeate water salinity are formulated in terms of system design (the number of membranes and system recovery rate) and flow parameters (feed water flow rate, alkalinity, thermal effects, and salinity). Findings indicate energy consumption decreases by increasing feed water temperature and the number of membranes. Moreover, increasing feed water flow rate and alkalinity leads to higher quality permeate water (lower salinity), whereas, increasing the number of membranes and system recovery rate and higher feed water temperature and salinity, increases the salinity of permeate water. The findings provides insight into the RO process features and can help designers and operators achieve a higher energy efficiency and better performance in the design and operation of RO units and the presented solution can be built into systems for comprehensive techno-economic evaluation of RO-based processes to consider changes in effective parameters.


Keywords    Desalination; Reverse Osmosis; Design of Experiment (DoE); Performance; Permeate Salinity; Specific Energy Consumption (SEC).


References    [1]- Subramani .A.  and Jacangelo .J.G., “Treatment technologies for reverse osmosis concentrate volume minimization: a review”, Separation and Purification Technology,Vol. 122,(2014), 472-489 [2]- Miller. S., Shemer. H. and Semiat .R., “Energy and environmental issues in desalination”, Desalination, Vol.366, (2015), 2-8 [3]- Wilf. M., Klinko. K., “Optimization of seawater RO systems design”, Desalination, Vol.138 (1), (2001), 299-306 [4]- Lin. S. and Elimelech. M., “Staged reverse osmosis operation: Configurations, energy efficiency, and application potential”, Desalination Vol.366, (2015), 9-14 [5]- Harby. K., Chiva. S., Muñoz-Cobo. J.L.,  “An experimental study on bubble entrainment and flow characteristics of vertical plunging water jets”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol.57, (2014), 207–220. [6] Yadav. S. and Mehta. H.B., “Experimental investigations on air–water two-phase flow through a mini channel U-bend”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol.78, (2016), 182–198. [7]- A. Bakr. A., Zakaria. K., A. Abbas. M. and Hamdy. A., “Amphistegina media filtration as pre treatment of SWRO desalination unit for producing different salinities to study the corrosion behaviour of various materials”, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol.56, (2015), 1-18. [8]- Salcedo. R., Antipova. E., Boer. D., Jiménez. L.  and Guillén-Gosálbez. G., “Multi-objective optimization of solar Rankine cycles coupled with reverse osmosis desalination considering economic and life cycle environmental concerns” Desalination, Vol.286 , (2012),358-371. [9]- Guria. C., Bhattacharya.P.K., Gupta. S.K., “Multi-objective optimization of reverse osmosis desalination units using different adaptations of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) design”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol.29 (9) , (2005), 1977-1995. [10]- Graus. W., Blomen. E.  and Worrell. E., “Global energy efficiency improvement in the long term: a demand-and supply-side perspective” Energy efficiency, Vol. 4 (3) , (2011), 435-463 [11]- Agashichev. S.P. and  Lootah. K.N., “Influence of temperature and permeate recovery on energy consumption of a reverse osmosis system”, Desalination,Vol. 154 (3) , (2003), 253-266. [12]- García-Latorre .F.J., Pérez-Báez .S.O., and Gómez-Gotor. A., “Energy performance of a reverse osmosis desalination plant operating with variable pressure and flow” Desalination, Vol.366, (2015), 146-153 [13]- Jiang .A., Wang. J., Biegler .L.T., Cheng. W., Xing. C.  and Jiang. Z., “Operational cost optimization of a full-scale SWRO system under multi-parameter variable conditions” Desalination, Vol. 355, (2015), 124-140. [14]- Liron. O., Birnhack. L., Nir. O., Binshtein. E. and Lahav. O. , “Reducing the specific energy consumption of 1st-pass SWRO by application of high-flux membranes fed with high-pH, decarbonated seawater” Water research, Vol.85, (2015), 185-192. [15]- Ludwig. W., Seppälä. A., Lampinen. M.J.,  “Experimental study of the osmotic behaviour of reverse osmosis membranes for different NaCl solutions and hydrostatic pressure differences”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol.26, (2002), 963–969. [16]- Al-Mutaz. I.S. and Al-Ghunaimi. M.A., “Performance of Reverse Osmosis Units at High Temperatures”, The International Desalination Association (IDA) World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, Bahrain, October 26 – 31, (2001). [17]- Geraldes .V., Pereira. N.E., Norberta de Pinho. M., “Simulation and Optimization of Medium-Sized Seawater Reverse Osmosis Processes with Spiral-Wound Modules”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, Vol.44 (6) , (2005), 1897-1905. [18]- Vince. F., Marechal. F., Aoustin. E., Bréant.P., “Multi-objective optimization of RO desalination plants”, Desalination, Vol. 222 (1) , (2008), 96-118 [19]- Zirakrad .A., Hashemian. S.J., Ghaneian. M.T., “Performance Study of Reverse Osmosis Plants for Water Desalination in Bandar-Lengeh, Iran”, Journal of Community Health Research, Vol.2, (2013), 8-14. [20]- Montogomery. D.C.,  Design and Analysis of Experiments, 8th Ed, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork, (2012). [21] Hatami. M., Cuijpers. M.C.M. and Boot. M.D.,  “Experimental optimization of the vanes geometry for a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) using a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.106, (2015), 1057-1070. [22]- Kazemian. M.E., Behzadmehr .A., Sarvari .S.M.H., “Thermodynamic optimization of multi-effect desalination plant using the DoE method”, Desalination, Vol.257 (1) , (2010), 195-205. [23]- Madaeni. S.S., Koocheki. S., “Application of taguchi method in the optimization of wastewater treatment using spiral-wound reverse osmosis element”, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol.119 (1) , (2006), 37-44. [24]- Fritzmann. C., Löwenberg. J., Wintgens. T., Melin. T., “State-of-the-art of reverse osmosis desalination”, Desalination, Vol.216 (1) , (2007), 1-76. [25]- Jamaly. S., Darwish. N.N., Ahmed. I., and Hasan.S.W., “A short review on reverse osmosis pretreatment technologies” Desalination, Vol.354, (2014). 30-38. [26]- Flemming. H.C., “Reverse Osmosis Membrane Biofouling”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol.14, (1997), 382-391. [27]- Morton. A.J., Callister. I.K., and Wade. N.M., “Environmental impacts of seawater distillation and reverse osmosis processes”, Desalination, Vol.108 (1), (1996),1-10. [28]- Gude. V.G., “Energy consumption and recovery in reverse osmosis”, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol.36 (1-3), (2011), 239-260. [29]- Watson. I.C., Morin. O.J., and Henthorne. L., Desalting handbook for planners, 3rd Ed., US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Technical Service Center, Water Treatment Engineering and Research Group, Denver, Colorado, (2003). 

Download PDF 

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir