IJE TRANSACTIONS C: Aspects Vol. 31, No. 3 (March 2018) 432-439    Article in Press

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R. Jamshidi
( Received: July 21, 2017 – Accepted in Revised Form: October 12, 2017 )

Abstract    Many defects in manufacturing system are caused by human resources that show the significance of the human resources in manufacturing systems. Most manufacturers attempt to investigate the human resources in order to improve the work conditions and reduce the human error by providing a proper work-rest schedule. On the other hand, manufacturer deal with machine scheduling based on demand and work type. The mentioned scheduling would be effective if both are simultaneously implemented; then, we confront integrated human- machine systems which work with minimum cost, machine failure and human errors. Considering this fact, we propose a bi-level mixed integer nonlinear model to minimize the machine scheduling costs such as earliness-tardiness cost and interruption cost in the upper level and human error in lower level according to performance shaping factors (PSFs). Several numerical instances are implemented by the proposed model to show the model effectiveness to obtain the best work schedule for human resources and machines in manufacturing systems.


Keywords    Scheduling, Human error, Bi-level, Optimization


چکیده    بسیاری از نقص ها در کارخانجات ناشی از عملکرد عامل انسانی است که این امر اهمیت نقش نیروی انسانی در این محیط ها را نشان می دهد. بیشتر تولیدکنندگان سعی دارند به منظور توجه بیشتر به عامل انسانی و کاهش خطاهای انسانی یک برنامه کار و استراحت بهینه را ارائه نمایند. از سوی مقابل تولیدکنندگان با ماشین ها نیز مواجه اند و باید برنامه کاری آن ها را بر اساس میزان تقاضا و نوع کار تنظیم نمایند. چنین برنامه هایی زمانی موثر است که انسان و ماشین در ارتباط یا یکدیگر بررسی شوند و یک سیستم انسان- ماشین مورد توجه قرار گیرد. در این مقاله یک مدل دو سطحی بدین منظور ارائه شده است.. این مدل ریاضی غیر خطی سعی دارد تا هزینه های برنامه ریزی ماشین ها از قبیل زودکرد و دیرکرد، توقف را در سطح بالایی خود بهینه نماید و در سطح پایین خود خطای انسانی را بر اساس فاکتورهای شکل دهی عملکرد کمینه نماید. تعدادی مثال با استفاده از این مدل مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است که نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از موفقیت مدل در ارائه جواب های موثر و کارآمد می باشد.


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